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航空发动机气冷涡轮叶片冷却结构研究进展
孔祥灿1,2,张子卿1,3,朱俊强1,3,徐进良2,张燕峰1,3
1.中国科学院工程热物理研究所 轻型动力重点实验室,北京 100190;2.华北电力大学 能源动力与机械工程学院,北京 102206;3.中国科学院大学,北京 100049
摘要:
高效的冷却结构是避免气冷涡轮叶片受热损坏的关键,直接影响叶片冷却效率和航空发动机稳定性。但是高效冷却结构导致主流与冷气流的相干效应更加复杂,并且高效冷却结构的发展一直受到加工工艺的制约。本文从控制冷气流动的角度,将涡轮叶片分为前缘、中弦和尾缘区域,重点综述了近十年气冷涡轮叶片冷却结构的研究进展以及涡轮旋转状态下的气动传热特性,包括涡旋冲击冷却、气膜孔形状、尾缘内部强化换热结构与分隔肋形状等。在此基础上,对比了各个结构的冷却效果,并且指出各类冷却结构的缺陷。最后提出气冷涡轮叶片未来的发展方向和难点。
关键词:  气冷涡轮叶片  涡旋冷却  气膜孔  强化换热  扩展板  冷却效率
DOI:10.13675/j.cnki.tjjs.200632
分类号:V232
基金项目:国家科技重大专项(J2019-II-0002-0022);国家自然科学基金(51876202)。
Research Progress on Cooling Structure of Aeroengine Air-Cooled Turbine Blade
KONG Xiang-can1,2, ZHANG Zi-qing1,3, ZHU Jun-qiang1,3, XU Jin-liang2, ZHANG Yan-feng1,3
1.Key Laboratory of Light-duty Gas-turbine,Institute of Engineering Thermophysics,Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190,China;2.School of Energy,Power and Mechanical Engineering,North China Electric Power University,Beijing 102206,China;3.University of Chinese Academy of Sciences,Beijing 100049,China
Abstract:
Efficient cooling structure is the key to avoid the damage of air-cooled turbine blades, which directly affects the cooling efficiency of the blades and the stability of aeroengine. However, the coherent effect between the main flow and the cold air flow is more complex due to the high efficiency cooling structure. Moreover, the development of efficient cooling structure has been restricted by the processing technology. The turbine blade is divided into leading edge, middle chord and trailing edge regions from the perspective of controlling cold air flow. The research progress of cooling structure of air-cooled turbine blade and the aerodynamic heat transfer characteristics under rotating conditions in the last decade are reviewed, including vortex impingement cooling, film hole shape, internal enhanced heat transfer structure of trailing edge and septal rib shape. On this basis, the cooling effect of each structure is compared, and the defects of various cooling structures are pointed out. Finally, the future development direction and difficulties of air-cooled turbine blades are proposed.
Key words:  Air-cooled turbine blade  Vortex cooling  Film hole  Enhanced heat transfer  Expansion plate  Cooling efficiency